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Flexible Mxtrodes enable a large scale high-resolution mapping of neuromuscular networks in humans

Group of researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, Drexel University, Corporal Michael J. Crescenz VA Medical Center & St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital have published in Science Translational Medicine "MXene-infused bioelectronic interfaces for multiscale electrophysiology and stimulation" a flexible MXene electrode that record brain activity, electromyography to measure muscle activation, electrocardiography to monitor heart activity, and electrooculography to map eye movement.


"Soft bioelectronic interfaces for mapping and modulating excitable networks at high resolution and at a large scale can enable paradigm-shifting diagnostics, monitoring, and treatment strategies. Yet, current technologies largely rely on materials and fabrication schemes that are expensive, do not scale, and critically limit the maximum attainable resolution and coverage. Solution processing is a cost-effective manufacturing alternative, but biocompatible conductive inks matching the performance of conventional metals are lacking. Here, we introduce MXtrodes, a class of soft, high-resolution, large-scale bioelectronic interfaces enabled by Ti3C2 MXene (a two-dimensional transition metal carbide nanomaterial), and scalable solution processing. We show that the electrochemical properties of MXtrodes exceed those of conventional materials and do not require conductive gels when used in epidermal electronics. Furthermore, we validate MXtrodes in applications ranging from mapping large-scale neuromuscular networks in humans to cortical neural recording and microstimulation in swine and rodent models."







"Electrodes were fabricated in planar or three-dimensional forms and were applied to the skin of volunteers for use with electroencephalography to record brain activity, electromyography to measure muscle activation, electrocardiography to monitor heart activity, and electrooculography to map eye movement. The electrode arrays could also be implanted in pigs and rats for intraoperative monitoring and stimulation of the brain and showed compatibility with magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging. These flexible interfaces have potential clinical utility for multiscale epidermal sensing and neuromodulation."

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